Prepositions and Postpositions

Adposition is a generic term for prepositions and postpositions. A preposition comes before the words it's related to while a postposition comes after them.

Grammatical cases

In Old Persian, there was declension in 7 grammatical cases. Since Middle Persian, grammatical cases are marked with adpositions rather than declension. Each case is associated with an adposition. Thanks to this feature, learning the use of prepositions is quite easy in Persian.

caseindicatespreposition
ablativesourceaz
dativetargetbe
genitiverelatione
instrumentalmeans
locativelocation, timedar
caseindicatespostposition
accusativedirect object

Please note that although the way of marking grammatical cases changed yet Persian does mark all cases and has preserved features like having free word order. For example, consider the sentence «the girl told the man» (Subject Verb Object). In languages having case-marking, «the man» is marked in dative case but English doesn't mark this case. So, if we change the word order to, for example, «Object Verb Subject» the meaning will entirely change: «the man told the girl». It's not so in Persian because «the man» is marked in dative case and therefore, words can come in all possible orders:

The normal order is #1 but all the orders can be used depending on the word we want to put emphasis on.