A demonstrative pronoun stands on its own, replacing rather than modifying a noun. A demonstrative pronoun agrees in number with the noun it replaces so as to be clear whether a singular noun or a plural noun is replaced. Basic demonstrative pronouns are:
|in (this)||inhâ (these)|
|ân (that)||ânhâ (those)|
- In sib khub ast — In khub ast — This apple is good — This is good
- In sibhâ khub and — Inhâ khub and — These apples are good — These are good
- In ruznâme-ye emruz ast — This is today's newspaper
- Hâlâ, be in gush kon! — Now, listen to this!
The basic demonstratives are combined with certain words and make compound demonstratives. As for demonstrative pronouns and adverbs:
|ham (same)||hamin — this/the same|
haminhâ — these/the same
|hamân — that/the same|
hamânhâ — those/the same
|chon (like)||chonin — like this/these; such ... as this/these||chonân — like that/those; such ... as that/those|
|che (what)||inche — what||ânche — what|
|jâ (place)||injâ — here|
haminjâ — right here
|ânjâ — there|
hamânjâ — right there
- hamin râ mikhwâham — I want this one
- ânche goftam… — What (distal) I said…
- inche mibinid… — What (proximal) you see…
- injâ che kâr mikoni? — What are you doing here?
Usage as personal pronouns
Demonstrative pronouns of «ân, in, hamân, hamin» family, are also used as personal pronouns. For example, the Persian word for «they» is «ânhâ» and in spoken Persian, the word for «he, she, it» is «ân» («u» is never used). Distal pronouns indicate remoteness and proximal pronouns indicate proximity to the speaker.