Demonstrative pronouns

Simple forms

A demonstrative pronoun stands on its own, replacing rather than modifying a noun. A demonstrative pronoun agrees in number with the noun it replaces so as to be clear whether a singular noun or a plural noun is replaced. Basic demonstrative pronouns are:

in (this)inhâ (these)
ân (that)ânhâ (those)


Compound forms

The basic demonstratives are combined with certain words and make compound demonstratives. As for demonstrative pronouns and adverbs:

ham (same)hamin — this/the same
haminhâ — these/the same
hamân — that/the same
hamânhâ — those/the same
chon (like)chonin — like this/these; such ... as this/thesechonân — like that/those; such ... as that/those
che (what)inche — whatânche — what
jâ (place)injâ — here
haminjâ — right here
ânjâ — there
hamânjâ — right there


Usage as personal pronouns

Demonstrative pronouns of «ân, in, hamân, hamin» family, are also used as personal pronouns. For example, the Persian word for «they» is «ânhâ» and in spoken Persian, the word for «he, she, it» is «ân» («u» is never used). Distal pronouns indicate remoteness and proximal pronouns indicate proximity to the speaker.