Persian Grammar
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Persian diphthongs are combinations of a vowel with either "i" or "u". Therefore, their marking is similar to vowel marking of their constituents.

Diphthong "ây"

The diphthong "ây" is made up of the vowels "â" and "i". Both of these vowels are always marked. Thus, the diphthong "ây" is always marked in writing.

The vowel "â" is marked with آ at word initial and with ا in all other positions. The consonant ی marks "y" in non-initial positions. Thus, the diphthong "ây" is marked with آی at word initial and with ای in all other positions.

Word Pronunciation Meaning
آینه âyne mirror
چای chây tea

Diphthong "ey"

The diphthong "ey" is made up of the vowels "e" and "i". The vowel "e" is partially marked and consequently, the diphthong "ey" is partially marked in writing.

The vowel "e" is marked with ا at word initial. The consonant ی marks "y" in non-initial positions. Thus, the diphthong "ey" is marked with ای at word initial and with ی in all other positions. To denote "ey" clearly, the diacritic زیر (zir) can be placed below the preceding consonant and the diacritic ساکن (sâken) over the ی.

Word Pronunciation Meaning
ای
اِی
اِیْ
ey o! (vocative)
ایوان
اِیوان
اِیْوان
eyvân balcony
میدان
مِیدان
مِیْدان
meydân square (street)
می
مِی
مِیْ
mey wine

Diphthong "oy"

The diphthong "oy" is made up of the vowels "o" and "i". Both of these vowels are marked and consequently, the diphthong "oy" is always marked in writing.

The diphthong "oy" is marked with ای at word initial and with وی in all other positions. To denote "oy" clearly, the diacritic پیش (pish) can be placed over the preceding consonant and the diacritic ساکن (sâken) over the ی.

Word Pronunciation Meaning
خوی
خُوی
خُویْ
khoy sweat (obsolete); name of a city

Diphthong "uy"

The diphthong "uy" is made up of the vowels "u" and "i". Both of these vowels are always marked. Thus, the diphthong "uy" is always marked in writing.

The vowel "u" is marked with او at word initial and with و in all other positions. The consonant ی marks "y" in non-initial positions. Thus, the diphthong "uy" is marked with اوی at word initial and with وی in all other positions. Additionally, the diacritic ساکن (sâken) can be place over ی.

Word Pronunciation Meaning
روی
رویْ
ruy zinc; face

Diphthong "ow"

The diphthong "ow" is made up of the vowels "o" and "u". Both of these vowels are marked and consequently, the diphthong "ow" is always marked in writing.

The diphthong "ow" is marked with او at word initial and with و in all other positions. The diacritic پیش (pish) can be placed over the preceding consonant.

Word Pronunciation Meaning
اوج owj highest point, culmination
موز mowz banana
نو now new

Summary

Diphthong Word Initial Word Medial Word Final
ây آی ای ای
ey اِی ـِ ی ـِ ی
oy اُی وی وی
uy اوی وی وی
ow اُو ُو ُو