Persian Grammar
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Long Vowel “â”

The vowel â is always marked. At word initial, with آ. A bare ا denotes â in all other positions.

Word Pronunciation Meaning
آب âb water
باد bâd wind
باران bârân rain
آوا âvâ sound

Long Vowel "i"

The vowel i is always marked. At word initial, with ای. The consonant ی is used to denote i in all other positions.

Word Pronunciation Meaning
ایران irân Iran
سیب sib apple
فیلم film movie, film
بازی bâzi game

Long Vowel "u"

The vowel u is always marked. At word initial, with او. The consonant و is used to denote u in all other positions.

Word Pronunciation Meaning
او u he, she
خوب khub good
ابرو abru eyebrow

Short Vowel "a"

The vowel a is marked at word final with the consonant ه. In other cases, it is not normally marked in writing. When needed, it can be denoted by placing the diacritic زبر (zebar), aka فتحه (fathe), over the preceding consonant.

Word Pronunciation Meaning
اَبر abr cloud
آتَش âtash fire
نَه na no

In Iranian Persian, final "a" has transformed into "e". The word نَه is an exception. In Afghan Persian and Tajik Persian as well as many regional dialects of Iran, final "a" of classic Persian has been preserved:

Word Modern Pronunciation Classic Pronunciation
خانه khâne khâna
بسته baste basta

Short Vowel "e"

The vowel "e" is partially marked with the consonant ا at word initial and with the consonant ه at word final. In other cases, it is not marked in writing, even partially. When needed, it can be clearly denoted by placing the diacritic زیر (zir), aka کسره (kasre) below the preceding consonant.

Word Pronunciation Meaning
اِمروز emruz today
پِدر pedar father
خانه khâne house

Short Vowel "o"

The vowel o is marked with اُ at word initial and with the consonant و at word final and sometimes in medial positions as well. When needed, it can be denoted by placing the diacritic پیش (pish), aka ضمه (zamme), over the preceding consonant.

Word Pronunciation Meaning
اُمید omid hope
خُشک khoshk dry
رادیو râdiyo radio
مانتو mânto manteau

Summary

Vowel Word Initial Word Medial Word Final
â آ ا ا
a اَ ـَـ ه
e اِ ـِـ ه
i ای ی ی
o اُ ـُـ و
u او و و