Persian Grammar
Learn About Persian Language

The past active participle, or simply past participle, is formed by removing -an from the infinitive of a verb and adding -e. In other words, by adding -e to the past stem of a verb.

Infinitive Past Stem Past Participle
رفتن
raftan
to go
رفت
raft
رفته
rafte
gone
دیدن
didan
to see
دید
did
دیده
dide
seen
بودن
budan
to be
بود
bud
بوده
bude
been
نوشتن
neveshtan
to write
نوشت
nevesht
نوشته
neveshte
written
گذشتن
gozashtan
to pass
گذشت
gozasht
گذشته
gozashte
passed

Tense formation

Past participles are used in the formation of certain tenses.

Tense Example
Past narrative رفته‌ام
rafeam
I have gone
Past precedent رفته بودم
rafte budam
I had gone

Word formation

Past participles can be used as an adjective or noun. Derived words literally mean "someone or something that has done". They usually find extended meanings, depending on the context. For example, گذشته (gozashte) literally means "something that has passed" but it also means "past".

Tense Example
گذشتن
gozashtan
to pass
گذشته
gozashte
passed; past
بستن
bastan
to close
بسته
baste
closed; package
فرستادن
ferestâdan
to send
فرستاده
ferestâde
envoy
گفتن
goftan
to say
گفته
gofte
words (the things said)