Persian Grammar
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In Persian, passive voice is formed from past active participle and the auxiliary verb شدن (shodan). Similarly, the past passive participle of a verb is formed from its past active participle and شده (shode), which is the past active participle of شدن.

Infinitive Past active participle Past passive participle
گفتن
goftan
to say
گفته
gofte
said
گفته‌شده
gofteshode
that has been said
خواندن
khwândan
to read
خوانده
khwânde
read
خوانده‌شده
khwândeshode
that has been read

English does not always differentiate between a past action and a present perfect action.

نشان زدن پیغام به عنوان خوانده‌شده
neshân zadan-e peyghâm be onvân-e khwândeshode
Mark a message as read

In the above example, "read" means "that has been read" and thus, Persian uses past passive participle.

Compound verbs

Regarding compound verbs made with کردن (kardan), the past passive participle is formed by replacing کردن (kardan) with شده (shode).

Infinitive Past passive participle
باز کردن
bâz kardan
to open
بازشده
bâzshode
that has been opened
پاک کردن
pâk kardan
to clean
پاک‌شده
pâkshode
that has been cleaned

Negative form

The negative form is made by prefixing ن (na-) to the auxiliary part i.e. شده

Positive form Negative form
گفته‌شده
gofteshode
that has been said
گفته‌نشده
goftenashode
that has not been said
خوانده‌شده
khwândeshode
that has been read
خوانده‌نشده
khwândenashode
that has not been read
بازشده
bâzshode
that has been opened
بازنشده
bâznashode
that has not been opened
پاک‌شده
pâkshode
that has been cleaned
پاک‌نشده
pâknashode
that has not been cleaned