Phonology of Persian language

Syllable

The syllable patterns of Persian are as follows:

C = Consonant, V = Vowel
PatternExamples
CVna, to, ke, mâ, khu, si, u
CVCkar, pol, del, kâr, mur, sir, az, in, âb
CVCCkard, goft, zesht, kârd, khoshk, rikht, farsh, ârd, abr

These patterns can be encapsulated in CV(C)(C). According to the patterns:

Syllabification

The basic rule for breaking a word into its syllables is: each vowel sound indicates a syllable. Therefore, two adjacent vowel sounds belong to separate syllables and are pronounced individually.

WordSyllables
jodânevisijo-dâ-ne-vi-si
shamødânshamø-dân
maføulmaf-øul
jâmeejâ-me-e
soâlso-âl
NowruzNow-ruz
nowâvarinow-â-va-ri
farhangsâzifar-hang-sâ-zi

Double consonants

Like Italian, when a consonant is written twice, it means that they must be pronounced individually. For example, in najjâr the two j's fall into separate syllables and therefore, both are pronounced: naj-jâr. The only exception is when double consonants occur at word final; in this case, since they don't fall into separate syllables, they are pronounced as one sound. Example: khatt (line) but khatti (khat-ti, linear).

WordSyllables
ammâam-mâ
pellepel-le
najjârnaj-jâr
jallâdjal-lâd
khayyâtkhay-yât

Stress position

In Persian, word stress is on the last syllable. There are only a few exceptions that like Spanish, an acute accent ( ´ ) can be placed above the vowel of the syllable that takes stress: le (yes), ágar (if), ámmâ (but), râ (because)

Enclitics

Enclitics are unstressed words that are associated with their preceding word. In English, definite and indefinite articles (the, a, an) are examples for an enclitic.

For educational purposes, the following enclitics are separated from their host word with a hyphen. You can write them separately or join them to their host word:

Conjugation Endings are also enclitics.