Persian Morphology
Word Formation and Derivation

Persian prefix نا (nâ-) attaches to nouns, adjectives, stems, etc. and derives words that mean the opposite. Its function is similar to English un-, dis- and in- (and its variations im-and ir-).

WordDerivation
امید
omid
hope
ناامید
nâomid
hopeless
راحت
râhat
comfortable
ناراحت
nârâhat
sad; uncomfortable
راضی
râzai
satisfied
ناراضی
nârâzai
dissatisfied
خوشایند
khoshâyand
pleasant
ناخوشایند
nâkhoshâyand
unpleasant
شنوا
shenvâ
able to hear
ناشنوا
nâshenvâ
deaf
بینا
binâ
able to see
نابینا
nâbinâ
blind
مناسب
monâseb
proper
نامناسب
nâmonâseb
improper
توان
tavân
present stem of tavânestan
(can, be able to)
ناتوان
nâtavân
unable; disabled
دان
dân
present stem of dânestan
(to know)
نادان
nâdân
ignorant; foolish

نا precedes other prefixes. For example, the derivations of the prefix هم (ham-):

WordDerivation
هماهنگ
hamâhang
harmonious, harmonic
ناهماهنگ
nâhamâhang
unharmonious, disharmonic

Deriving nouns and adjectives

With the aid of suffix ی (-i), it is possible to derive nouns and adjectives from the words made with نا.

DerivationMeaning
ناامیدی
nâomid
hopelessness, despair
نادانی
nâdân
ignorance; foolishness
ناهماهنگی
nâhamâhangi
disharmony
ناراحتی
nârâhati
sadness

Deriving verbs

We can derive compound verbs from the words made with نا using verbs like کردن (kardan) and شدن (shodan).

DerivationMeaning
ناامید کردن
nâomid kardan
to disappoint
ناامید شدن
nâomid shodan
to despair
ناراحت کردن
nârâhat kardan
to sadden, make sad
ناراحت شدن
nârâhat shodan
to become sad