Preposition e (Genitive case)

The genitive case, introduced as ezâfe in most Persian grammar references, marks a word as modifying another word. For example, it relates words to indicate possession. The genitive case is introduced with preposition «e» («ye» after vowels).

NOTE In Perso-Arabic alphabet, there's no letter for vowels and consequently, the genitive preposition doesn't appear in writing unless it's pronounced «ye». In grammar references that use Latin alphabet, it's written attached to its preceding word. This custom will be used here too but it must be mentioned that it's actually incorrect. «e» is a preposition and has a distinct grammatical role. This preposition was correctly written as a separate word in Middle Persian.

pedar-e Sârâ the father of Sarah
dust-e pedar-e Sârâ the friend of Sarah's father
cheshmhâ-ye Sârâ the eyes of Sarah
arbâb-e halghehâ Lord of the rings
dokhtar-e shâh the daughter of the king
otâgh-e barâdar-am the room of my brother
rang-e divâr the color of wall
shomâl-e Tehrân the north of Tehran
shahr-e Tehrân the city of Tehran
din-e Eslâm the religion of Islam
dâneshju-ye fizik the student of physics
mâh-e Fevriye the month of February
borj-e Eiffel Eiffel Tower (lit. Tower of Eiffel)
âlbom-e aks photo album (lit. album of photo)

Attributing nouns

An adjective modifies the noun to which it is related. Therefore, in Persian, adjectives introduce the genitive case:

zabân-e âsân easy language
âb-e garm warm water
yek mâshin-e siyâh a black car
tâbestân-e âyande next summer
hafte-ye gozashte past week
bânk-e markazi-ye Jomhuri-ye Eslâmi-ye Irân central bank of Islamic Republic of Iran