Free personal pronoun
Free personal pronouns are not dependent on their preceding word and can be used alone. They are comparable to English «I, you, they, …»:
Persian is a gender-neutral language. Personal pronouns don't differentiate different sexes. Regarding English, Persian has one word for «he» and «she».
In Persian, personal pronouns have formal and informal forms. Each plural pronoun is used as formal form for its singular counterpart:
|mâ||formal form for 1S (man). This form is typically used by a king, queen, leader and in short, people constituted in dignity, authority, …|
|shomâ||formal form for 2S (to). Like French «vous», Spanish «usted, ustedes», German «Sie», …|
|ishân||formal form for 3S (u). In fact, that's the main function of this pronoun in modern Persian. Today, «they» is expressed with a different pronoun (ânhâ).|
The demonstrative pronouns ân (that) and ânhâ (those), in (this), inhâ (these) and their emphatic forms (hamân, hamânhâ, hamin, haminhâ) are used as personal pronouns for third person. Proximal pronouns are used when you refer to someone or something near you.
In spoken Persian, the demonstrative pronoun ân has taken the place of u. That is, u is never used in spoken Persian. ân is used in written Persian as well but only for the non-human (objects, animals, plants).
The demonstrative pronoun ânhâ is used for «they» both in spoken and written Persian and ishân is only used as the formal form for 3rd person singular.
So, in terms of usage, Persian's personal pronouns are:
|1st||man||I||mâ||we; I (formal)|
|2nd||to||you (informal)||shomâ||you (formal singular)|
you (formal and informal plural)
|he, she (human)|
he, she (formal)