Future perfect

Some dialects of Persian have future tenses that are not found in standard Persian. Among them, a «future perfect» tense that can be called «future precedent» (âyande-ye pishin). It describes an action that will be complete «before» a particular time in the future. In French, this tense is called «futur antérieur» (future anterior).


past participle of main verb + auxiliary verb budan (to be) in future simple

Example rafte khwâhad bud — he/she will have gone


Look at the relation between tenses made from past participle and the auxiliary «budan» conjugated in different tenses. This will be helpful, especially for those who use Persian verb conjugator and see many tenses marked as having «no equivalent».

rafte + budamI had goneI was gone. In French: j'étais allé
rafte + budeam-I have been gone
rafte + bude budam-I had been gone. In French: je fus allé (passé antérieur)
rafte + amI have goneI am gone. In French: je suis allé
rafte + khwâham budI will have goneI will be gone. In French: je serai allé
rafte + bâsham-A past subjunctive tense. In French: que je sois allé (passé du subjonctif)
rafte + bude bâsham-A past subjunctive tense. In French: que je fusse allé (plus-que-parfait du subjonctif)

All of these tenses have an imperfect form that is formed by prefixing mi- to past participle. None of these imperfect tenses have an equivalent in English, French, Spanish, ... However, if you understand the concept of imperfect aspect, it isn't hard to get the gist of them. Persian has a simple yet highly productive tense formation.

mirafte + budamcovers —i.e. is a superset of— «I had been going»
mirafte + amcovers «I have been going»
mirafte + khwâham budcovers «I will have been going»