Persian Grammar
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Many Persian verbs have an irregular present stem. However, the majority of irregular verbs can be classified into categories in which present stems follow the same formation pattern. This page provides a general overview of these patterns. For the complete list of verbs and exceptions, please refer to the dedicated page for each pattern.

Verbs ending in یدن (-idan)

The present stem of verbs ending in یدن (-idan) is formed by removing -idan from their infinitive form:

InfinitivePresent Stem
باریدن
bâridan
بار
bâr
بریدن
boridan
بر
bor
بوسیدن
busidan
بوس
bus

Verbs ending in ندن (-ndan)

The present stem of verbs ending in ندن (-ndan) is formed by removing -dan from their infinitive form

InfinitivePresent Stem
کندن
kandan
کن
kan
ماندن
ndan
مان
mân
خواندن
khwândan
خوان
khwân

Verbs ending in ردن (-rdan)

The present stem of verbs ending in ردن (-rdan) is formed by removing -dan from their infinitive form

InfinitivePresent Stem
گستردن
gostardan
گستر
gostar
خوردن
khordan
خور
khor
پروردن
parvardan
پرور
parvar

Verbs ending in ودن (-udan)

The present stem of verbs ending in ودن (-udan) is formed by replacing it with -â

InfinitivePresent Stem
آزمودن
âzmudan
آزما
âzmâ
فرمودن
farmudan
فرما
farmâ
ربودن
robudan
ربا
robâ

Verbs ending in اشتن (-âshtan)

The present stem of verbs ending in اشتن (-âshtan) is formed by replacing it with -âr

InfinitivePresent Stem
داشتن
dâshtan
دار
dâr
گذاشتن
gozâshtan
گذار
gozâr
کاشتن
kâshtan
کار
kâr

Verbs ending in ستن (-estan)

The present stem of verbs ending in ستن (-estan) is formed by removing it

InfinitivePresent Stem
بایستن
bâyestan
بای
bây
دانستن
dânestan
دان
dân
توانستن
tavânestan
توان
tavân

Verbs ending in ختن (-khtan)

The present stem of verbs ending in ختن (-khtan) is formed by replacing it with -z

InfinitivePresent Stem
آمیختن
âmikhtan
آمیز
âmiz
آموختن
âmukhtan
آموز
âmuz
انداختن
andâkhtan
انداز
andâz