Negative conjugation


The negative conjugation is formed by prefexing na- to the verb:

raftam (I went)naraftam (I did not go)
kâr kardam (I worked)kâr nakardam (I did not work)
khorde budam (I had eaten)nakhorde budam (I had not eaten)

Sample conjugations

raftan (to go) in indicative past simple
naraftamI did not gonaraftimwe did not go
naraftiyou did not gonaraftidyou did not go
narafthe/she/it did not gonaraftandthey did not go
kâr kardan (to work) in indicative past simple
kâr nakardamI did not workkâr nakardimwe did not work
kâr nakardiyou did not workkâr nakardidyou did not work
kâr nakardhe/she/it did not workkâr nakardandthey did not work
raftan (to go) in indicative future simple
nakhwâham raftI won't gonakhwâhim raftwe won't go
nakhwâhi raftyou won't gonakhwâhid raftyou won't go
nakhwâhad rafthe/she/it won't gonakhwâhand raftthey won't go
kâr kardan (to work) in indicative future simple
kâr nakhwâham kardI won't workkâr nakhwâhim kardwe won't work
kâr nakhwâhi kardyou won't workkâr nakhwâhid kardyou won't work
kâr nakhwâhad kardhe/she/it won't workkâr nakhwâhand kardthey won't work

NOTE In Persian of Iran, na changes to ne before the imperfect particle mi:

miraftam (I went)nemiraftam (I did not go)
miravam (I go)nemiravam (I don't go)

NOTE If the verb beings with the vowels â, a, o, u then a -y- is added after na-:

âmadam (I came)nayâmadam (I did not come)
oftâd (it fell)nayoftâd (it did not fall)
istâd (he stood)naistâd (he did not stand)


Budan in present tense

The verb budan (to be) has a special negative form in present tense. It's the result of the contraction of ni (a negative prefix in classic Persian) and astan (a verb in classic Persian that means «to be»). For example, ni+astam makes ni'stam, which is simply written nistam

nistamI am notnistimwe are not
nistiyou are notnistidyou are not
nisthe/she/it is notnistandthey are not


Present subjunctive

The negative form of present subjunctive is made by replacing be- with na-:

neveshtan (to write)
kâr kardan (to work)
kâr nakonamkâr nakonim
kâr nakonikâr nakonid
kâr nakonadkâr nakonand