Participles of a verb

A participle is a form of a verb, having the characteristics of an adjective. It can be used in forming some tenses.

Past participle

The past participle forms by replacing «-an» with «-e». In other words, by adding «-e» to the past stem:

infinitivepast participle
raftan (to go)rafte (gone)
didan (to see)dide (seen)
budan (to be)bude (been)
neveshtan (to write)neveshte (written)
gozashtan (to pass)gozashte (passed; past)

Present participle

The present participle forms by adding «-ande» («-yande» after vowels) to the present stem. It's not used in forming any tense:

infinitivepresent stempresent participle
raftan (to go)ravravande (that goes)
âmadan (to come)ââyande (that comes; next; future)
davidan (to run)davdavande (that runs; runner)
goftan (to say, tell)guguyande (that says; speaker)
shostan (to wash)shushuyande (that washes; washer; detergent)

Past passive participle

The perfect participle forms from past participle and «shode», the past participle of «shodan» which is used in making passive voice:

infinitivepast participleperfect participle
goftan (to say)gofte (said)gofteshode (that has been said)
khwândan (to read)khwânde (read)khwândeshode (that has been read)