An adverbial is a word or a group of words having the same function as an adverb. In Persian, adjectives can function as adverbs. There are also prepositional phrases and other constructions that play the role of an adverb in sentences.

Adverbials with “به”

The preposition به (“be”, to) plus a noun forms a prepositional phrase that functions as an adverb. This structure can also be used to form an adverbial from an adjective. Adjectives are converted to nouns by taking the suffix “-i”. The result noun is combined with the preposition به and forms an adverbial. The formula can be summarized as:

به + noun
adjective + suffix “-i”

Forming Adverbs from Nouns

This structure is mainly used to construct adverbs from nouns of Arabic origin. Native Persian nouns typically have a direct adjectival form and do not use this structure.

Noun Adverb
شدت
sheddat
severity
به شدت
be sheddat
severely
دقت
deghghat
accuracy, carefulness
به دقت
be deghghat
carefully, attentively
سرعت
sorøat
rapidity, speed
به سرعت
be sorøat
rapidly, speedily

Forming Adverbs from Adjectives

Regarding adjectives that end in a vowel other than “-e”, the epenthetic consonant “-y-” is added between the adjective and the suffix “-i”. In adjectives that end in “-e”, the consonant “g” appears between the adjective and the suffix. This consonant belongs to the older form of the word and is not the result of epenthesis.

Adjective Adverb
آسان
âsân
easy
به آسانی
be âsâni
easily
زیبا
zibâ
beautiful, nice
به زیبایی
be zibâyi
beautifully, nicely
تازه
tâze
fresh, new, recent
به تازگی
be tâzegi
recently, newly, freshly
ساده
sâde
simple, easy
به سادگی
be sâdegi
simply, easily
زود
zud
quick, early
به زودی
be zudi
soon

Demonstrative Forms

The demonstrative adjectives این (“in”, this) and آن (“ân”, that) can be used with this structure to create distal and proximal demonstrative adverbs.

به + این / آن + noun
adjective + suffix -i

Examples:

باورم نمی‌شود به این سادگی شکست خوردند
Bâvaram nemishavad be in sâdegi shekast khordand
I can not believe they were defeated so easily (as easy as this)
به این زودی دارید می‌روید؟
Be in zudi dârid miravid?
Are you leaving already? (as early as this)

The following example shows that distal and proximal adjectives can change the meaning entirely:

امروزه، پدر و مادرها فرزندان‌شان را به آن شدت تنبیه نمی‌کنند
Emruze, pedar-o-mâdarhâ farzandân-eshân râ be ân sheddat tanbih nemikonand
Parents don’t punish their children so severely these days
The distal demonstrative آن points to the past, to a distant time before now. Therefore, this sentence means that these days, parents don’t punish their children as severely as parents generally did in the past generations.
امروزه، پدر و مادرها فرزندان‌شان را به این شدت تنبیه نمی‌کنند
[…] be in sheddat […]
Parents don’t punish their children so severely these days
The proximal demonstrative این points to the present, to a time close to now. Therefore, this sentence means that these days, parents don’t punish their children as severely as a specific parent has done.

Adverbials with “با”

The preposition با (“bâ”, with) plus a noun forms a prepositional phrase that functions as an adverb. This structure is found in English (e.g. “with care”) but it is not as productive:

Noun Adverb
آرامش
ârâmesh
calmness, tranquility
با آرامش
bâ ârâmesh
calmly, tranquilly
عصبانیت
asabâniyyat
anger
با عصبانیت
bâ asabâniyyat
angrily
دقت
deghghat
accuracy, carefulness
با دقت
bâ deghghat
carefully, attentively

There is a nuance between با دقت and به دقت. The preposition با emphasizes on “employing” care. Also note that not all adverbs have با and به forms.