Ablative Case in Persian

The preposition از (az) marks the ablative case in Persian. The ablative case is a grammatical case that typically marks the “source” or “origin” of a verb. For example: “to fall from a tree”, “To come from a city”, “to jump out of a plane”. The ablative case is also used for comparison: “to be younger than somebody”. Marking the material out of which something is made (e.g. “a wall made from stones”), is among the other uses of the ablative case.

از انگلیسی به فارسی ترجمه کردن
Az Engelisi be Fârsi tarjome kardan
To translate from English into Persian
از پدرم پرسیدم
az pedar-am porsidam
I asked my father
از مرگ می‌ترسد
az marg mitarsad
He fears death
از دوستی شنیدم
az dust-i šenidam
I heard from/through a friend
از نمایشگاه خریدمش
az nemâyešgâh xaridam-aš
I bought it from the exhibition
از ما تشکر کرد
az mâ tašakkor kard
He thanked us
می‌توانم از تلفن‌تان استفاده کنم؟
Mitavânam az telefon-etân estefâde konam?
Can I use your phone?

The ablative is the case of source and origin. Therefore, it can be used to indicate the cause of an action.

از ترس می‌لرزیدند
Az tars milarzidand
They were trembling with fear
از ترس دروغ گفت
Az tars doruǧ goft
He lied out of fear

Ablative of Pronouns

The ablative preposition can combine with bound personal pronouns and free personal pronouns. Bound pronouns are not normally used in written Persian and are typical of spoken Persian. The following table demonstrates bound ablative pronouns as they are written and pronounced in informal speech.

Singular Plural
1st Person ازم
2nd Person ازت
3rd Person ازش

The following table demonstratives free ablative pronouns.

Singular Plural
1st Person از من
az man
از ما
az mâ
2nd Person از تو
az to
از شما
az šomâ
3rd Person از او
az u
از آن
az ân
از آنها
az ânhâ

The free forms are strong and denote more emphasis.

ازش پرسیدم
az-aš porsidam
I asked him/her
از او پرسیدم
az u porsidam
I asked him/her
ازت نمی‌ترسم
az-at nemitarsam
I’m not afraid of you

Ablative of Prepositions

The ablative case governs certain prepositions including the following prepositions.

پیش از
piš az
قبل از
ǧabl az
پس از
pas az
بعد از
baød az