The instrumental case is a grammatical case used to indicate that a noun or pronoun is the instrument or means of an action, someone or something accompanying an action, etc. Simply put, the instrumental case is used to indicate how something is done.

Instrumental Case in Persian

The preposition با (“bâ”) marks the instrumental case in Persian. It generally corresponds to English “with” and “by”. However, there are contexts where the instrumental marker corresponds to other English prepositions including “in” and “to”.

Instrument or Means


Instrumental of Pronouns

The instrumental marker با can combine with bound personal pronouns and free personal pronouns. Bound pronouns are not normally used in written Persian and are typical of spoken Persian. The following table demonstrates bound instrumental pronouns as they are written and pronounced in informal speech. The “h” in “bâ-hâm” and other forms is an epenthetic consonant used to resolve vowel hiatus.

Singular Plural
1st Person باهام
2nd Person باهات
3rd Person باهاش

The following table demonstratives free instrumental pronouns.

Singular Plural
1st Person با من
bâ man
با ما
bâ mâ
2nd Person با تو
bâ to
با شما
bâ shomâ
3rd Person با او
bâ u
با آن
bâ ân
با آنها
bâ ânhâ