The vocative case is a grammatical case that marks the noun being addressed. In other words, it marks the addressee of the speech. For example: “O Lord”.

Vocative Case in Persian

The postposition ا (“â”) marks the vocative case in Persian. It comes at the end of a noun or noun phrase and is written attached to its preceding word. To resolve vowel hiatus, “â” becomes “yâ” after vowels.

Forming the vocative with the postposition “â” is typical of literary Persian. In non-literary Persian, vocative structures are employed. The most common structure is formed with ای (ey), which functions like English “o” and “oh”. It comes before the noun or noun phrase it addresses.