- What are demonstrative adverbs?
- How are demonstrative adverbs formed?
- What kind of demonstrative adverbs does Persian have?
Adverbs express various information including time, location, manner or degree. Demonstrative adverbs have a two-way expression. For example, “now” and “then” both give information about time but “now” is a proximal adverb expressing a time at the present and “then” is a distal adverb expressing a particular time in the past or future and away from the present time.
In their simplest form, demonstrative adverbs are made by combining demonstrative adjectives with words that denote time, location, manner, degree, etc.
Demonstrative Adverbs of Place
The word جا (“jâ”, place) is combined with demonstrative adjectives and creates demonstrative adverbs of place. By convention, جا is written attached to simple demonstrative adjectives, similar to a suffix.
here, this place
right here, this very place
there, that place
right there, that very place
Demonstrative Adverbs of Time
The suffix ک (“-ak”) is combined with demonstrative adjectives and creates demonstrative adverbs of time.
now, at this time
right now, at this very time
then, at that time
right then, at that very time
The distal forms آنک and همآنک are obsolete and the proximal forms اینک and هماینک are restricted to written Persian. There are several options to express “now” and “then” in spoken and written Persian.
At this time
At this very time
At that time
At that very time
Demonstrative Adverbs of Degree
The word قدر (“ghadr”, amount) is combined with demonstrative adjectives and creates demonstrative adverbs of degree. By convention, قدر is written attached to simple demonstratives.
so, this much
so, [exactly/only/...] this much
so, that much
so, [exactly/only/...] that much
|چرا اینقدر ناراحت است؟|
|Cherâ inghadr nârâhat ast?|
|Why is she so sad?|
|آنقدر ناتوان شده بود که به سختی میتوانست بر روی پاهایش بایستد|
|Ânghadr nâtavân shode bud ke be sakhti mitavânest bar ru-ye pâhâ-yash beistad|
|He had become so weak that he could hardly stand up|
|همین قدر میدانم|
|Hamin ghadr midânam|
|I only know this much|
Persian has a rich set of demonstratives. For example, simple demonstrative adjectives can combine with همه and create distal and proximal distinction.
this much, all this, so much, so many
that much, all that, so much, so many
|تا حالا اینهمه خرگوش ندیده بودم|
|Tâ hâlâ inhame khargush nadide budam|
|I had never seen so many rabbits|
Demonstrative Adverbs of Manner
The word گونه (“gune”, manner) is combined with demonstrative adjectives and creates demonstrative adverbs of manner. By convention, گونه is written attached to simple demonstratives.
in this manner
[exactly/only/...] in this manner
in that manner
[exactly/only/...] in that manner
Demonstrative adverbs of manner can also form by using words other than گونه. The word جور (jur) is common in spoken Persian and can also be used in written Persian. The word طور (towr) is used both in spoken and written Persian. The word سان (sân) is mainly used in literary Persian. These words are not always synonym and interchangeable. There can be subtle nuances of meaning.