Adverbs express various information including time, location, manner or degree. Demonstrative adverbs have a two-way expression. For example, “now” and “then” both give information about time but “now” is a proximal adverb expressing a time at the present and “then” is a distal adverb expressing a particular time in the past or future and away from the present time.

In their simplest form, demonstrative adverbs are made by combining demonstrative adjectives with words that denote time, location, manner, degree, etc.

Demonstrative Adverbs of Place

The word جا (“jâ”, place) is combined with demonstrative adjectives and creates demonstrative adverbs of place. By convention, جا is written attached to simple demonstrative adjectives, similar to a suffix.

Simple Exactitude
Proximal اینجا
injâ
here, this place
همین جا
hamin jâ
right here, this very place
Distal آنجا
ânjâ
there, that place
همان جا
hamân jâ
right there, that very place

Demonstrative Adverbs of Time

The suffix ک (“-ak”) is combined with demonstrative adjectives and creates demonstrative adverbs of time.

Simple Exactitude
Proximal اینک
inak
now, at this time
هم‌اینک
haminak
right now, at this very time
Distal آنک
ânak
then, at that time
هم‌آنک
hamânak
right then, at that very time

The distal forms آنک and هم‌آنک are obsolete and the proximal forms اینک and هم‌اینک are restricted to written Persian. There are several options to express “now” and “then” in spoken and written Persian.

Now
At this time
Right now
At this very time
اکنون
aknun
هم‌اکنون
hamaknun
حالا
hâlâ
همین حالا
hamin hâlâ
الآن
aløân
همین الآن
hamin aløân
Then
At that time
Right then
At that very time
آنگاه
ângâh
همان گاه
hamân gâh
آنوقت
ânvaght
همان وقت
hamân vaght
آنزمان
ânzamân
همان زمان
hamân zamân

Demonstrative Adverbs of Degree

The word قدر (“ghadr”, amount) is combined with demonstrative adjectives and creates demonstrative adverbs of degree. By convention, قدر is written attached to simple demonstratives.

Simple Exactitude
Proximal اینقدر
inghadr
so, this much
همین قدر
hamin ghadr
so, [exactly/only/...] this much
Distal آنقدر
ânghadr
so, that much
همان قدر
hamân ghadr
so, [exactly/only/...] that much

Examples

چرا اینقدر ناراحت است؟
Cherâ inghadr nârâhat ast?
Why is she so sad?
آنقدر ناتوان شده بود که به سختی می‌توانست بر روی پاهایش بایستد
Ânghadr nâtavân shode bud ke be sakhti mitavânest bar ru-ye pâhâ-yash beistad
He had become so weak that he could hardly stand up
همین قدر می‌دانم
Hamin ghadr midânam
I only know this much

Persian has a rich set of demonstratives. For example, simple demonstrative adjectives can combine with همه and create distal and proximal distinction.

Proximal Distal
اینهمه
inhame
this much, all this, so much, so many
آنهمه
ânhame
that much, all that, so much, so many

Examples

تا حالا اینهمه خرگوش ندیده بودم
Tâ hâlâ inhame khargush nadide budam
I had never seen so many rabbits

Demonstrative Adverbs of Manner

The word گونه (“gune”, manner) is combined with demonstrative adjectives and creates demonstrative adverbs of manner. By convention, گونه is written attached to simple demonstratives.

Simple Exactitude
Proximal اینگونه
ingune
in this manner
همین گونه
hamin gune
[exactly/only/...] in this manner
Distal آنگونه
ângune
in that manner
همان گونه
hamân gune
[exactly/only/...] in that manner

Demonstrative adverbs of manner can also form by using words other than گونه. The word جور (jur) is common in spoken Persian and can also be used in written Persian. The word طور (towr) is used both in spoken and written Persian. The word سان (sân) is mainly used in literary Persian. These words are not always synonym and interchangeable. There can be subtle nuances of meaning.

Simple Exactitude
Proximal اینجور
injur
همین جور
hamin jur
Distal آنجور
ânjur
همان جور
hamân jur
Proximal اینطور
intowr
همین طور
hamin towr
Distal آنطور
ântowr
همان طور
hamân towr
Proximal این‌سان
insân
همین سان
hamin sân
Distal آن‌سان
ânsân
همان سان
hamân sân