Some dialects of Persian have future tenses that are not considered a part of standard language. Among them, a future perfect tense that can be called future precedent (âyande-ye pishin). It describes an action that will be complete before a particular time in the future.


past participle of main verb + auxiliary verb budan (to be) in future simple

rafte khwâham bud I will have gone
rafte khwâhi bud You will have gone
rafte khwâhad bud He/She/It will have gone
rafte khwâhim bud We will have gone
rafte khwâhid bud You will have gone
rafte khwâhand bud They will have gone


Look at the relation between tenses made from past participle and the auxiliary «budan» conjugated in different tenses.

Tense Equivalent Literally
rafte + budam I had gone I was gone. In French: j'étais allé
rafte + budeam - I have been gone
rafte + bude budam - I had been gone. In French: je fus allé (passé antérieur)
rafte + am I have gone I am gone. In French: je suis allé
rafte + khwâham bud I will have gone I will be gone. In French: je serai allé
rafte + bâsham - A past subjunctive tense. In French: que je sois allé (passé du subjonctif)
rafte + bude bâsham - A past subjunctive tense. In French: que je fusse allé (plus-que-parfait du subjonctif)

All of these tenses have an imperfect form that is formed by prefixing mi- to past participle. None of these imperfect tenses have an equivalent in English, French, Spanish, … However, if you understand the concept of imperfect aspect, it isn't hard to get the gist of them. Persian has a simple yet highly productive tense formation.

Tense Equivalent
mirafte + budam covers «I had been going»
mirafte + am covers «I have been going»
mirafte + khwâham bud covers «I will have been going»