There are two main ways to create verbs in Persian: suffixation and compounding. Consider the word بوس (“bus”, kiss). When the suffix یدن (“-idan”) is added to بوس, the result is the simple verb بوسیدن (“busidan”, to kiss). When بوس is combined with the verb کردن (“kardan”) the result is the compound verb بوس کردن (“bus kardan”, to kiss). Both بوسیدن and بوس کردن mean the same. Persian prefers to create verbs by compounding and as a result, has a limited number of simple verbs. There are even simple verbs that their compound variant either prevails or has entirely taken the place of the simple variant:

Simple Variant Compound Variant
آغازیدن
âghâzidan
to begin, start
آغاز کردن
âghâz kardan
to begin, start
آماسیدن
âmâsidan
to swell
ورم کردن
varam kardan
to swell
بیختن
bikhtan
to sift
الک کردن
alak kardan
to sift

In modern Persian, new verbs are typically created by compounding. This includes verbs derived from loanwords:

تلفن کردن
telefon kardan
to phone
فکس کردن
faks kardan
to fax
کپی کردن
kopi kardan
to copy
پارک کردن
pârk kardan
to park

Suffix -idan

The suffix یدن (“-idan”) is added to words of various categories including nouns, adjectives and verbal stems. The result is a simple verb that has the characteristics of other simple verbs: its present stem is the same word and its past stem is obtained by dropping “-an”.

Word Derived Verb
ترس
tars
fear
ترسیدن
tarsidan
to fear
خشک
khoshk
dry
خشکیدن
khoshkidan
to dry up, wither
رقص
raghs
dance
رقصیدن
raghsidan
to dance
فهم
fahm
understanding
فهمیدن
fahmidan
to understand

Causative verbs are formed by adding the suffix -idan to causative stem. The ending -ânidan is usually shortened to -ândan.

Verb Causative Form
خندیدن
khandidan
to laugh
خنداندن / خندانیدن
khandândan / khandânidan
to make laugh
ترسیدن
tarsidan
to fear
ترساندن / ترسانیدن
tarsândan / tarsânidan
to frighten
خشکیدن
khoshkidan
to dry up, wither
خشکاندن / خشکانیدن
khoshkândan / khoshkânidan
to cause to become dry

Suffix -estan

Suffix ستن (-estan) is similar to یدن (-idan) but it is not productive in modern Persian:

Word Derived Verb
توان
tavân
power, ability
توانستن
tavânestan
can, to be able

Present Stem

The present stem of constructed verbs is formed by removing the verb-making suffix. Therefore, these verbs can be regarded as regular verbs:

Verb Present Stem
ترسیدن
tarsidan
ترس
tars
ترساندن
tarsândan
ترسانیدن
tarsânidan
ترسان
tarsân
توانستن
tavânestan
توان
tavân

Not all verbs ending in یدن (-idan) are constructed verbs. There are a few verbs that end in -idan but since they are not constructed verbs, their present stem is not formed according to the above rule. Examples:

Verb Present Stem
دیدن
didan
بین
bin
شنیدن
shenidan
شنو
shenav