Participles are a particular type of words derived from verbs. For example, gone and going are respectively, the past participle and the present participle of the verb to go. Participles can be used as an adjective or noun. They can also be used in the formation of some tenses. Regarding Persian, as far as verb conjugation is concerned, you only need to learn past active participle. Other participles are not used in tense formation.

Participles are divided into active participles and passive participles. Each of them can have past, present and future forms.

Voice Past Present Future
Active شکسته
shekaste
broken
شکننده
shekanande
breaking
شکستنی
shekastani
going to break
Passive شکسته‌شده
shekasteshode
been broken
شکسته‌شونده
shekasteshavande
being broken
شکسته‌شدنی
shekasteshodani
going to be broken

When talking about active participles, it is common to drop "active" and simply say, for example, past participle instead of past active participle. Likewise, present active participle and future active participle are often shortened to present participle and future participle.

Active participles

Past active participle is formed from past stem and the suffix -e. Present active participle is formed from present stem and the suffix -ân. Future active participle is formed from infinitive and the suffix -i.

Past Active Present Active Future Active
افتاده
oftâde
fallen
افتان
oftân
falling
افتادنی
oftâdani
going to fall

Passive participles

Passive participles are mainly formed from transitive verbs. In Persian, passive voice is formed from past active participle and the auxiliary verb شدن (shodan). Similarly, passive participles are formed from past active participle and شدن.

Past Active Past Passive Present Passive Future Passive
شکسته
shekaste
broken
شکسته‌شده
shekasteshode
been broken
شکسته‌شونده
shekasteshavande
being broken
شکسته‌شدنی
shekasteshodani
going to be broken

Future participles

Future participles are formed from the infinitive. When used as adjectives or nouns, they convey "going to", "due to", "necessary to", "suitable to", "worthy of", "able to", etc. depending on the context.

Infinitive Future Active Participle
شستن
shostan
to wash
شستنی
shostani
due to wash: laundry
مردن
mordan
to die
مردنی
mordani
having to die: mortal
شدن
shodan
to become
شدنی
shodani
able to become: feasible

Negative participles

The negative form of participles is formed using the prefix ن (na-).

نشکسته
nashekaste
not broken, unbroken
نشدنی
nashodani
unable to become: unfeasible

You can find more information about Persian participles in the following pages: