- What is a participle?
- Which participles are used in verb conjugation?
- How are passive participles formed?
- How is the negative form of a participle made?
Participles are a particular type of words derived from verbs. For example, gone and going are respectively, the past participle and the present participle of the verb to go. Participles can be used as an adjective or noun. They can also be used in the formation of some tenses. Regarding Persian, as far as verb conjugation is concerned, you only need to learn past active participle. Other participles are not used in tense formation.
Participles are divided into active participles and passive participles. Each of them can have past, present and future forms.
going to break
going to be broken
When talking about active participles, it is common to drop "active" and simply say, for example, past participle instead of past active participle. Likewise, present active participle and future active participle are often shortened to present participle and future participle.
Past active participle is formed from past stem and the suffix -e. Present active participle is formed from present stem and the suffix -ân. Future active participle is formed from infinitive and the suffix -i.
|Past Active||Present Active||Future Active|
going to fall
Passive participles are mainly formed from transitive verbs. In Persian, passive voice is formed from past active participle and the auxiliary verb شدن (shodan). Similarly, passive participles are formed from past active participle and شدن.
|Past Active||Past Passive||Present Passive||Future Passive|
going to be broken
Future participles are formed from the infinitive. When used as adjectives or nouns, they convey "going to", "due to", "necessary to", "suitable to", "worthy of", "able to", etc. depending on the context.
|Infinitive||Future Active Participle|
due to wash: laundry
having to die: mortal
able to become: feasible
The negative form of participles is formed using the prefix ن (na-).
not broken, unbroken
unable to become: unfeasible
You can find more information about Persian participles in the following pages: