Divisions of Time

PersianEnglish
ثانیه
sâniye
second
دقیقه
daǧiǧe
minute
ربع
robø
quarter
ساعت
sâat
hour
روز
ruz
day
صبح
sobh
morning
صبح زود
sobh-e zud
early morning
پیش از ظهر
piš az zohr
before noon
ظهر
zohr
noon
بعد از ظهر
baød az zohr
afternoon
عصر
asr
late afternoon
غروب
ǧorub
evening (about sunset)
شب
šab
night
هفته
hafte
week
ماه
mâh
month
چله
čelle
forty-day period
فصل
fasl
season
سال
sâl
year
دهه
dahe
decade
سده
sade
century
قرن
ǧarn
century
هزاره
hezâre
millennium

The pattern “cardinal number + suffix -e” creates a division of time equal to that number:

Past

PersianEnglish
دیروز
diruz
yesterday
دیروز صبح
diruz sobh
yesterday morning
دیروز بعد از ظهر
diruz baød az zohr
yesterday afternoon
دیروز غروب
diruz ǧorub
yesterday evening
دیشب
dišab
last night
پریروز
pariruz
the day before yesterday
پریشب
parišab
the night before last
هفته‌ی گذشته
hafte-ye gozašte
last week
ماه گذشته
mâh-e gozašte
last month
پارسال
pârsâl
last year
پیرارسال
pirârsâl
the year before last

In written Persian, گذشته (“gozašte”) can also be used for روز (“ruz”), شب (“šab”) and سال (“sâl”).

PersianEnglish
روز گذشته
ruz-e gozašte
yesterday (lit. past day)
شب گذشته
šab-e gozašte
last night (lit. past night)
سال گذشته
sâl-e gozašte
last year (lit. past year)

Present

PersianEnglish
امروز
emruz
today
امروز صبح
emruz sobh
this morning
امروز بعد از ظهر
emruz baød az zohr
this afternoon
امروز غروب
emruz ǧorub
this evening
امشب
emšab
tonight
این هفته
in hafte
this week
این ماه
in mâh
this month
امسال
emsâl
this year

“em” in emsâl, emruz and emšab means “this”. It is a remnant of Middle Persian. So, for example, emsâl literally means “this year”.

Future

PersianEnglish
فردا
fardâ
tomorrow
فردا صبح
fardâ sobh
tomorrow morning
فردا بعد از ظهر
fardâ baød az zohr
tomorrow afternoon
فردا غروب
fardâ ǧorub
tomorrow evening
فردا شب
fardâ šab
tomorrow night
پس‌فردا
pasfardâ
the day after tomorrow
هفته‌ی آینده
hafte-ye âyande
next week
ماه آینده
mâh-e âyande
next month
سال آینده
sâl-e âyande
next year

Days of the Week

In Iran, the week begins on Saturday and ends on Friday. So, Thursday and Friday are weekend days.

PersianEnglish
شنبه
šanbe
Saturday
یکشنبه
yekšanbe
Sunday
دوشنبه
došanbe
Monday
سه‌شنبه
sešanbe
Tuesday
چهارشنبه
čahâršanbe
Wednesday
پنجشنبه
panjšanbe
Thursday
جمعه
jomøe
Friday
آدینه
âdine
Friday [literary]
آخر هفته
âxar-e hafte
weekend

Related vocabulary

PersianEnglish
شنبه‌ها
šanbehâ
on Saturdays
شنبه‌ی گذشته
šanbe-ye gozašte
last Saturday
این شنبه
in šanbe
this Saturday
شنبه صبح
šanbe sobh
Saturday morning
شنبه‌ی آینده
šanbe-ye âyande
next Saturday
امروز شنبه است
emruz šanbe ast
It’s Saturday today

Months

Iranians have their own calendar system. Persian new year (Nowruz) begins on the first day of spring at the exact time of vernal equinox. Spring is the first season of the year and each month corresponds to a zodiac sign.

PersianEnglish
فروردین
Farvardin (31 days)
Aries
اردیبهشت
Ordibehešt (31 days)
Taurus
خرداد
Xordâd (31 days)
Gemini
تیر
Tir (31 days)
Cancer
مرداد
Mordâd (31 days)
Leo
شهریور
Šahrivar (31 days)
Virgo
مهر
Mehr (30 days)
Libra
آبان
Âbân (30 days)
Scorpio
آذر
Âzar (30 days)
Sagittarius
دی
Dey (30 days)
Capricorn
بهمن
Bahman (30 days)
Aquarius
اسفند
Esfand (29/30 days)
Pisces

Seasons

PersianEnglish
بهار
bahâr
spring
تابستان
tâbestân
summer
پاییز
pâyiz
fall
زمستان
zemestân
winter